Neuromuscular control can be defined as the unconscious muscle response to a signal linked to the "dynamic stability" of one or more joints. The set of neurological messages (sometimes called "muscle memory") is a complex integrated system that links different aspects of muscle actions (static, dynamic, reactive), coordination, stabilization, posture, and balance. Given its specific support function, the main subject conditioned by the activity of this system is the locomotor apparatus, that is the lower half of our body.
Any injury that interrupts the mechanoreceptors, alters normal sensory input or interferes with the processing of sensory information may result in an alteration of neuromuscular control (which in this case is also referred to as reduced or dysfunctional). As a result, changes in the neuromuscular system often cause trouble with dynamic joint stability and postural control. Neuromuscular control impairments may also alter the models of movement and increase the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. The latter by interrupting interactions within the neuromuscular system can in turn be a cause of altered neuromuscular control. Understanding the mechanisms of neuromuscular control and how changes occur is therefore essential to design effective rehabilitation and training programs.
Neuromuscular exercise has effects on functional performance, biomechanics, and the muscular activation models of the surrounding joint musculature. In the case of a blocked joint following an injury, the simple restoration of normal functionality is not sufficient for recovery, but the associated neuromuscular control mechanism required during daily life and sport-specific activities must also be trained.
In rehabilitation protocols performed with the aim of restoring neuromuscular control damage, OptoJump and Gyko can be used as measuring instruments to analyze changes in static and dynamic posture over time.
Using WITTY SEM as well as BrainHQ can result in more successful training protocols. The possibility to show different stimuli and to position the semaphores freely in space, and that of administering specific cognitive loads, enables carrying out tests that train proprioceptively and cognitive abilities at the same time.